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A comprehensive map of the dendritic cell transcriptional network engaged upon innate sensing of HIV

Johnson, JS;De Veaux, N;Rives, AW;Lahaye, X;

Transcriptional programming of the innate immune response is pivotal for host protection. However, the transcriptional mechanisms that link pathogen sensing with innate activation remain poorly understood. During infection with HIV-1, human dendritic cells (DCs) can detect the virus through an innate sensing pathway leading to antiviral interferon and DC maturation. Here, we developed an iterative experimental and computational approach to map the innate response circuitry during HIV-1 infection. By integrating genome-wide chromatin accessibility with expression kinetics, we inferred a gene regulatory network that links 542 transcription factors with 21,862 target genes. We observed that an interferon response is required, yet insufficient to drive DC maturation, and identified PRDM1 and RARA as essential regulators of the interferon response and DC maturation, respectively. Our work provides a resource for interrogation of regulators of HIV replication and innate immunity, highlighting complexity and cooperativity in the regulatory circuit controlling the DC response to infection.