Plos Computational Biology
Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces an acute inflammatory response across multiple organs, primarily via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). We sought to define novel aspects of the complex spatiotemporal dynamics of LPS-induced inflammation using computational modeling, with a special focus on the timing of pathological systemic spillover. An analysis of principal drivers of LPS-induced inflammation in the heart, gut, lung, liver, spleen, and kidney to assess organ-specific dynamics, as well as in the plasma (as an assessment of systemic spillover), was carried out using data on 20 protein-level inflammatory mediators measured over 0-48h in both C57BL/6 and TLR4-null mice. Using a suite of computational techniques, including a time-interval variant of Principal Component Analysis, we confirm key roles for cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor- and interleukin-17A, define a temporal hierarchy of organ-localized inflammation, and infer the point at which organ-localized inflammation spills over systemically. Thus, by employing a systems biology approach, we obtain a novel perspective on the time- and organ-specific components in the propagation of acute systemic inflammation.