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A genetic locus complements resistance to Bordetella pertussis-induced histamine sensitization

Raza, A;Diehl, SA;Krementsov, DN;Case, LK;Li, D;Kost, J;Ball, RL;Chesler, EJ;Philip, VM;Huang, R;Chen, Y;Ma, R;Tyler, AL;Mahoney, JM;Blankenhorn, EP;Teuscher, C;

Histamine plays pivotal role in normal physiology and dysregulated production of histamine or signaling through histamine receptors (HRH) can promote pathology. Previously, we showed that Bordetella pertussis or pertussis toxin can induce histamine sensitization in laboratory inbred mice and is genetically controlled by Hrh1/HRH1. HRH1 allotypes differ at three amino acid residues with P263-V313-L331 and L263-M313-S331, imparting sensitization and resistance respectively. Unexpectedly, we found several wild-derived inbred strains that carry the resistant HRH1 allotype (L263-M313-S331) but exhibit histamine sensitization. This suggests the existence of a locus modifying pertussis-dependent histamine sensitization. Congenic mapping identified the location of this modifier locus on mouse chromosome 6 within a functional linkage disequilibrium domain encoding multiple loci controlling sensitization to histamine. We utilized interval-specific single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based association testing across laboratory and wild-derived inbred mouse strains and functional prioritization analyses to identify candidate genes for this modifier locus. Atg7, Plxnd1, Tmcc1, Mkrn2, Il17re, Pparg, Lhfpl4, Vgll4, Rho and Syn2 are candidate genes within this modifier locus, which we named Bphse, enhancer of Bordetella pertussis induced histamine sensitization. Taken together, these results identify, using the evolutionarily significant diversity of wild-derived inbred mice, additional genetic mechanisms controlling histamine sensitization.