Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease in central nervous system (CNS) with limited therapeutic drugs. In the present study, we explored the anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective properties of Acteoside (AC), an active compound from medicinal herb Radix Rehmanniae (RR), and neuroprotective effects of AC on MS pathology by using an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. We tested the hypothesis that AC could alleviate EAE pathogenesis through inhibiting inflammation and ONOO–mediated mitophagy activation in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that AC treatment effectively ameliorated neurological deficit score and postponed disease onset in the EAE mice. AC treatment inhibited inflammation/demyelination, alleviated peripheral activation and CNS infiltration of encephalitogenic CD4+ T cells and CD11b+ activated microglia/macrophages in the spinal cord of EAE mice. Meanwhile, AC treatment reduced ONOO- production, down-regulated the expression of iNOS and NADPH oxidases, and inhibited neuronal apoptotic cell death and mitochondrial damage in the spinal cords of the EAE mice. Furthermore, AC treatment decreased the ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I in mitochondrial fraction, and inhibited the translocation of Drp1 to the mitochondria. In vitro studies further proved that AC possessed strong ONOO- scavenging capability and protected the neuronal cells from nitrative cytotoxicity via suppressing ONOO–mediated excessive mitophagy. Taken together, Acteoside could be a potential therapeutic agent for multiple sclerosis treatment. The suppression of ONOO–induced excessive mitophagy activation could be one of the critical mechanisms contributing to its anti-inflammatory and anti-demyelinating properties. Copyright 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.