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Afferent connections of the dorsal, perigenual, and subgenual anterior cingulate cortices of the monkey: amygdalar inputs and intrinsic connections

Kim, Y;Sakata, H;Nejime, M;Konoike, N;Miyachi, S;Nakamura, K;

The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is crucial for emotional processing, and its abnormal activities contributes to mood disorders. The ACC is divided into three subregions: the dorsal ACC (dACC), perigenual ACC (pgACC), and subgenual ACC (sgACC). Although these regions have been implicated in emotional processing, the dACC is more involved in cognitive functions, while the other two regions are important in the pathophysiology underlying mood disorders. Recent studies have suggested that the sgACC and pgACC exhibit opposite emotion-related activity patterns and that an interaction of the ACC with the amygdala is crucial for emotion-related ACC functions. Here, we injected neuronal tracers into the sgACC, pgACC, and dACC of macaques and quantitatively compared the distributions of the retrogradely labeled neurons in the amygdalar nuclei. For both the dACC and pgACC, about 90% of the labeled neurons were found in the basal nucleus, about 10% were in the accessory basal nucleus, and the lateral nucleus had almost no neuronal labeling. However, after sgACC injections, nearly half of the labeled neurons were found in the accessory basal nucleus, and a moderate number of labeled neurons were found in the lateral nucleus. These differences in amygdalar inputs might underlie the functional differences in the sgACC and pgACC. Moreover, after tracer injections in the sgACC, labeled neurons were observed in the pgACC and not the dACC, suggesting that the pgACC directly influences the activity of the sgACC. Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.