Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease for which conventional treatments have limited efficacy or side effects. Free radicals are primarily involved in bloodbrain barrier disruption and induce neuronal and axonal damage, thus promoting the development of MS. Amifostine, a radioprotective drug used as a cytoprotective agent, attenuates oxidative stress and improves radiation damage by acting as a direct scavenger of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of amifostine on MS in a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which was developed by immunizing C57BL/6 mice with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein and pertussis toxin. EAE mice received intraperitoneal injections of amifostine prior to onset of clinical symptoms and were monitored up to day 15 post induction. We observed abnormal clinical behavioral scores and a decrease in body weight. Histological analysis showed severe inflammatory infiltration and demyelination in the brain and spinal cord lumbar enlargements where significant upregulation of the mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and interleukin-8, downregulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10, and obvious microgliosis were also observed. Amifostine treatment potently reversed these abnormal changes. The anti-inflammatory effect of amifostine was associated with the inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation. Furthermore, the expression of proteins involved in the NLRP3 signaling pathway and pyroptosis was decreased. In conclusion, our study showed that amifostine ameliorates induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis via anti-inflammatory and anti-pyroptosis effects, providing further insights into the use of amifostine for the treatment of MS.