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Amino acids suppress macropinocytosis and promote release of CSF1 receptor in macrophages

Mendel, ZI;Reynolds, MB;Abuaita, BH;O'Riordan, MX;Swanson, JA;

The internalization of solutes by macropinocytosis provides an essential route for nutrient uptake in many cells. Macrophages increase macropinocytosis in response to growth factors and other stimuli. To test the hypothesis that nutrient environments modulate solute uptake by macropinocytosis, this study analyzed the effects of extracellular amino acids on the accumulation of fluorescent fluid-phase probes in murine macrophages. Nine amino acids, added individually or together, were capable of suppressing macropinocytosis in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages stimulated with the growth factors colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) or interleukin 34, both ligands of the CSF1 receptor (CSF1R). The suppressive amino acids did not inhibit macropinocytosis in response to lipopolysaccharide, the chemokine CXCL12, or the tumor promoter phorbol myristate acetate. Suppressive amino acids promoted release of CSF1R from cells and resulted in the formation of smaller macropinosomes in response to CSF1. This suppression of growth factor-stimulated macropinocytosis indicates that different nutrient environments modulate CSF1R levels and bulk ingestion by macropinocytosis, with likely consequences for macrophage growth and function.