Angiogenesis is a prominent feature of central nervous system (CNS) disease and has roles in both the continued promotion of inflammation and the subsequent repair processes. Here we report that prostacyclin (or prostaglandin I(2) (PGI(2))) derived from new vessels promotes axonal remodeling of injured neuronal networks after CNS inflammation. In a localized model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), new vessels formed around the inflammatory lesion, followed by sprouting of adjacent corticospinal tract (CST) fibers. These sprouting fibers formed a compensatory motor circuit, leading to recovery of motor function. Capillary endothelial cell-derived prostacyclin bound to its receptor, the type I prostaglandin receptor (IP receptor), on CST neurons, promoting sprouting of CST fibers and contributing to the repair process. Inhibition of prostacyclin receptor signaling impaired motor recovery, whereas the IP receptor agonist iloprost promoted axonal remodeling and motor recovery after the induction of EAE. These findings reveal an important function of angiogenesis in neuronal rewiring and suggest that prostacyclin is a promising molecule for enhancing functional recovery from CNS disease.