Pro-inflammatory T cells in the central nervous system (CNS) are causally associated with multiple demyelinating and neurodegenerative diseases1,2,3,4,5,6, but the pathways that control these responses remain unclear. Here we define a population of inflammatory group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) that infiltrate the CNS in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. These ILC3s are derived from the circulation, localize in proximity to infiltrating T cells in the CNS, function as antigen-presenting cells that restimulate myelin-specific T cells, and are increased in individuals with multiple sclerosis. Notably, antigen presentation by inflammatory ILC3s is required to promote T cell responses in the CNS and the development of multiple-sclerosis-like disease in mouse models. By contrast, conventional and tissue-resident ILC3s in the periphery do not appear to contribute to disease induction, but instead limit autoimmune T cell responses and prevent multiple-sclerosis-like disease when experimentally targeted to present myelin antigen. Collectively, our data define a population of inflammatory ILC3s that is essential for directly promoting T-cell-dependent neuroinflammation in the CNS and reveal the potential of harnessing peripheral tissue-resident ILC3s for the prevention of autoimmune disease.