Molecular Biology Of The Cell
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the component of Gram-negative bacteria that activates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) to trigger proinflammatory responses. We examined the involvement of Lyn tyrosine kinase in TLR4 signaling of macrophages, distinguishing its catalytic activity and intermolecular interactions. For this, a series of Lyn-GFP constructs bearing point mutations in particular domains of Lyn were overexpressed in RAW264 macrophage-like cells or murine peritoneal macrophages, and their influence on LPS-induced responses was analyzed. Overproduction of wild-type or constitutively active Lyn inhibited production of TNF- and CCL5/RANTES cytokines and down-regulated the activity of NFB and IRF3 transcription factors in RAW264 cells. The negative influence of Lyn was nullified by point mutations of Lyn catalytic domain or Src homology 2 (SH2) or SH3 domains or of the cysteine residue that undergoes LPS-induced palmitoylation. Depending on the cell type, overproduction of those mutant forms of Lyn could even up-regulate LPS-induced responses, and this effect was reproduced by silencing of endogenous Lyn expression. Simultaneously, the Lyn mutations blocked its LPS-induced accumulation in the raft fraction of RAW264 cells. These data indicate that palmitoylation, SH2- and SH3-mediated intermolecular interactions, and the catalytic activity of Lyn are required for its accumulation in rafts, thereby determining the negative regulation of TLR4 signaling.