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Basophils prime group 2 innate lymphoid cells for neuropeptide-mediated inhibition

Inclan-Rico, JM;Ponessa, JJ;Valero-Pacheco, N;Hernandez, CM;Sy, CB;Lemenze, AD;Beaulieu, AM;Siracusa, MC;

Type 2 cytokine responses promote parasitic immunity and initiate tissue repair; however, they can also result in immunopathologies when not properly restricted. Although basophilia is recognized as a common feature of type 2 inflammation, the roles basophils play in regulating these responses are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that helminth-induced group 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) responses are exaggerated in the absence of basophils, resulting in increased inflammation and diminished lung function. Additionally, we show that ILC2s from basophil-depleted mice express reduced amounts of the receptor for the neuropeptide neuromedin B (NMB). Critically, NMB stimulation inhibited ILC2 responses from control but not basophil-depleted mice, and basophils were sufficient to directly enhance NMB receptor expression on ILC2s. These studies suggest that basophils prime ILC2s to respond to neuron-derived signals necessary to maintain tissue integrity. Further, these data provide mechanistic insight into the functions of basophils and identify NMB as a potent inhibitor of type 2 inflammation.