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Ciesielska, A;Krawczy, M;Sas-Nowosielska, H;Hromada-Judycka, A;Kwiatkowska, K;
TLR4 is activated by the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and triggers two pro-inflammatory signaling cascades: a MyD88-dependent one in the plasma membrane, and the following TRIF-dependent one in endosomes. An inadequate inflammatory reaction can be detrimental for the organism by leading to sepsis. Therefore, novel approaches to therapeutic modulation of TLR4 signaling are being sought after. The TLR4 activity is tightly connected with the presence of CD14, a GPI-anchored protein that transfers LPS monomers to the receptor and controls its endocytosis. In this study we focused on CD14 trafficking as a still poorly understood factor affecting TLR4 activity. Two independent assays were used to show that after endocytosis CD14 can recycle back to the plasma membrane in both unstimulated and stimulated cells. This route of CD14 trafficking can be controlled by sorting nexins (SNX) 1, 2, and 6, and is important for maintaining the surface level and the total level of CD14, but can also affect the amount of TLR4. Silencing of these SNXs attenuated especially the CD14-dependent endosomal signaling of TLR4, making them a new target for therapeutic regulation of the inflammatory response of macrophages to LPS.This article is protected by