American Journal Of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative And Comparative Physiology
In mammals, the pontine noradrenergic system influences nearly every aspect of central nervous system function. A subpopulation of pontine noradrenergic neurons, called A5, are thought to be important in the cardiovascular response to physical stressors, yet their function is poorly defined. We hypothesized that activation of A5 neurons stimulates a sympathetically-mediated increase in BP. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a comprehensive assessment of the cardiovascular effects of chemogenetic stimulation of A5 neurons in male and female adult rats using intersectional genetic and anatomical targeting approaches. Chemogenetic stimulation of A5 neurons in freely behaving rats elevated BP by 15 mmHg and increased cardiac baroreflex sensitivity with a negligible effect on resting HR. Importantly, A5 stimulation had no detectable effect on locomotor activity, metabolic rate or respiration. Under anesthesia, stimulation of A5 neurons produced a marked elevation in visceral sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and no change in skeletal muscle SNA, showing that A5 neurons preferentially stimulate visceral SNA. Interestingly, projection mapping indicates that A5 neurons target sympathetic preganglionic neurons throughout the spinal cord and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons throughout in the brainstem, as well as the nucleus of the solitary tract, and ventrolateral medulla. Moreover, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry indicate that a sub-population of A5 neurons co-release glutamate and monoamines. Collectively, this study suggests A5 neurons are a central modulator of autonomic function with a potentially important role in sympathetically-driven redistribution of blood flow from the visceral circulation to critical organs and skeletal muscle.