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Journal Of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
Diekjiirgen, D;Astashkina, A;Grainger, DW;Holt, D;Brooks, AE;
Recent efforts show that significantly reducing implant-adsorbed proteins does not avoid the foreign body response. Fluorinated surfaces are commonly used to passivate cell-mediated inflammatory responses to implanted materials but adsorb host proteins and facilitate the attachment and proliferation of macrophages. This study considers in vitro macrophage activation to fluorinated TeflonAF() compared to tissue-culture polystyrene using pre-adsorbed proteins (fibrinogen, BSA, collagen and elastin). Primary macrophage cultures adhere on all pre-adsorbed protein surfaces in a protein concentration-dependent manner and activate to the same extent after 72 h, regardless of surface chemistry. However, macrophages alter their cultured adherent morphology depending on which protein is pre-adsorbed to these surfaces. Macrophages cultured on TeflonAF() on all pre-adsorbed proteins produced overall higher levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines – TNF-, IL-6, IL-1 or MCP-1 – than those cultured on tissue-culture polystyrene and those cultured in serum-free media. However, at 72 h, macrophages adherent on BSA or fibrinogen pre-adsorbed surfaces failed to exhibit increased amounts of TNF-a, IL-6 or IL-1/S on either TeflonAF() or TCPS, as well as MCP-1 on TCPS, in the presence of activating lipopolysaccharide. Different cell responses to pre-adsorbed proteins reflect substrate-specific regulation of macrophage cytokine secretion, indicative of LPS tolerance distinct from secondary macrophage cultures, and also distinct from macrophages adherent to surfaces in the absence of proteins. This result has bearing on connecting macrophage adhesion via adsorbed proteins on (fluorinated) biomaterials, and their resulting chronic activation that yields the FBR and possibly reduces effective macrophage clearance of microbes around implanted materials.