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Dietary 3 fatty acid exerts anti-allergic effect through the conversion to 17,18-epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid in the gut

Kunisawa, J;Arita, M;Hayasaka, T;Harada, T;Iwamoto, R;Nagasawa, R;Shikata, S;Nagatake, T;Suzuki, H;Hashimoto, E;Kurashima, Y;Suzuki, Y;Arai, H;Setou, M;Kiyono, H;

3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties, but the immune-metabolic progression from dietary oil remains to be investigated. Here we identified 17,18-epoxyeicostetraenoic acid (17,18-EpETE) as an anti-allergic metabolite generated in the gut from dietary 3 -linolenic acid (ALA). Biochemical and imaging mass spectrometry analyses revealed increased ALA and its metabolites, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), in the intestines of mice receiving ALA-rich linseed oil (Lin-mice). In murine food allergy model, the decreased incidence of allergic diarrhea in Lin-mice was due to impairment of mast cell degranulation without affecting allergen-specific serum IgE. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based mediator lipidomics identified 17,18-EpETE as a major 3 EPA-derived metabolite generated from dietary ALA in the gut, and 17,18-EpETE exhibits anti-allergic function when administered in vivo. These findings suggest that metabolizing dietary 3 PUFAs generates 17,18-EpETE, which is an endogenous anti-allergic metabolite and potentially is a therapeutic target to control intestinal allergies.