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Diversification of TAM receptor tyrosine kinase function

Zagrska, A;Travs, PG;Lew, ED;Dransfield, I;Lemke, G;

The clearance of apoptotic cells is critical for both tissue homeostasis and the resolution of inflammation. We found that the TAM receptor tyrosine kinases Axl and Mer had distinct roles as phagocytic receptors in these two settings, in which they exhibited divergent expression, regulation and activity. Mer acted as a tolerogenic receptor in resting macrophages and during immunosuppression. In contrast, Axl was an inflammatory response receptor whose expression was induced by proinflammatory stimuli. Axl and Mer differed in their ligand specificities, ligand-receptor complex formation in tissues, and receptor shedding upon activation. These differences notwithstanding, phagocytosis by either protein was strictly dependent on receptor activation triggered by bridging of TAM receptor-ligand complexes to the ‘eat-me’ signal phosphatidylserine on the surface of apoptotic cells.