Citation

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Effect of a diet based on the dietary guidelines for americans on inflammation markers in women at risk for cardiometabolic disease: results of a randomized, controlled trial

Krishnan, S;Freytag, T;Jiang, X;Schuster, GU;Woodhouse, LR;Keim, NL;Stephensen, CB;

Objective
To evaluate the effect of a diet pattern based on Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA), in a controlled feeding setting, on plasma markers of inflammation and on cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC).

Design
Women (n = 44) with one or more risk factors of metabolic syndrome (and BMI: 25.2-39.8 kg/m2) completed an 8-wk controlled feeding study. They were randomized to either a group following a diet based on DGA 2010 (DGA), or a group given a ‘typical American diet’ (TAD), based largely on a Western diet pattern. By design, women maintained their body weight. Fasting plasma and PBMC were collected at wk. 0 (baseline) and at wk. 8 (post-intervention). Sixteen plasma markers of inflammation and eight PBMC cytokines were measured at both time points, to evaluate if the diet had a significant effect on concentrations of these inflammatory markers. Data were analyzed using ANCOVA, followed by multiple-comparison adjustment using Benjamini-Hochberg method.

Results
Significant changes observed in Serum Amyloid A (SAA) and Matrix Metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) in plasma did not retain significance upon multiple comparison adjustment. SAA: p = 0.044, adj p = 0.450; DGA mean change [95% CI] = − 12.6[− 32.3 to 7.04]; TAD mean change [95% CI] = − 2.24 [− 9.99 to 5.51]. MMP3: p = 0.014, adj p = 0.35; DGA mean change [95% CI] = 2.72[− 4.16 to 9.59]; TAD mean change [95% CI] = − 0.98[− 16.7 to 14.7]). Other inflammation markers were not differently altered by DGA relative to TAD. Effect size of change (Cohens d) indicated a large/medium-large effect of intervention on MMP3 and CRP, and medium effect on IL-6.

Conclusions
No statistically significant changes were observed in the immune markers examined in this study. The biological roles and magnitude of the non-significant differences seen with two variables, CRP and MMP3, suggest that they be examined in future studies.