Clinical And Vaccine Immunology
Individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have increased susceptibility to invasive disease caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Studies from Africa have suggested that this susceptibility is related in part to the development of a high level of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific IgG that is able to inhibit the killing of S. Typhimurium by bactericidal antibodies in healthy individuals. To explore this issue further, we examined the bactericidal activity against S. Typhimurium using serum and plasma samples from healthy controls and various clinical subgroups of HIV-infected adults in the United States. We found that the bactericidal activity in the samples from HIV-positive elite controllers was comparable to that from healthy individuals, whereas it was significantly reduced in HIV-positive viremic controllers and untreated chronic progressors. As demonstrated previously for healthy controls, the bactericidal activity of the plasma from the elite controllers was inhibited by preincubation with S. Typhimurium LPS, suggesting that it was mediated by anti-LPS antibodies. S. Typhimurium LPS-specific IgG was significantly reduced in all subgroups of HIV-infected individuals. Interestingly, and in contrast to the healthy controls, plasma from all HIV-positive subgroups inhibited in vitro killing of S. Typhimurium by plasma from a healthy individual. Our results, together with the findings from Africa, suggest that multiple mechanisms may be involved in the HIV-induced dysregulation of humoral immunity to S. Typhimurium.