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Expression of antioxidant enzymes in lesions of multiple sclerosis and its models

Moezzi, D;Dong, Y;Jain, RW;Lozinski, BM;Ghorbani, S;D'Mello, C;Wee Yong, V;

Oxidative stress promotes tissue injury in the central nervous system in neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS). To protect against this, antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), peroxiredoxin-5 (PRDX5) and glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPX4) may be upregulated. However, whether antioxidant enzyme elevation in mouse models of neurodegeneration corresponds to their expression in human diseases such as MS requires investigation. Here, we analyzed and compared the expression of SOD1, HO-1, PRDX5 and GPX4 in the murine spinal cord of three models of MS: focal lesions induced by (1) oxidized phosphatidylcholine or (2) lysophosphatidylcholine (lysolecithin), and (3) diffuse lesions of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Notably, CD68+ microglia/macrophages were the predominant cellular populations that expressed the highest levels of the detected antioxidant enzymes. Overall, the expression patterns of antioxidant enzymes across the models were similar. The increase of these antioxidant enzymes was corroborated in MS brain tissue using spatial RNA sequencing. Collectively, these results show that antioxidant capacity is relatively conserved between mouse models and MS lesions, and suggest a need to investigate whether the antioxidant elevation in microglia/macrophages is a protective response during oxidative injury, neurodegeneration, and MS.