4410 total record number 100 records this year

FTY720 requires vitamin B12-TCN2-CD320 signaling in astrocytes to reduce disease in an animal model of multiple sclerosis

Jonnalagadda, D;Kihara, Y;Groves, A;Ray, M;Saha, A;

FTY720 (fingolimod) is a sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator and sphingosine analogue approved for multiple sclerosis (MS) therapy, which can functionally antagonize the S1P receptor, S1P1. Vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency produces neurological manifestations resembling MS. Here, we report a new mechanism where FTY720 suppresses neuroinflammation by regulating B12 metabolic pathways. Nuclear RNA-seq of c-Fos-activated astrocytes (called ieAstrocytes) from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) spinal cords identified up-regulation of CD320, a transcobalamin 2 (TCN2)-B12 receptor, by S1P1 inhibition. CD320 was reduced in MS plaques. Deficiency of CD320 or dietary B12 worsened EAE and eliminated FTY720’s efficacy, while concomitantly down-regulating type I interferon signaling. TCN2 functioned as a chaperone for FTY720 and sphingosine, which induced astrocytic CD320 internalization. An accompanying paper identified a requirement for astrocyte sphingosine kinases in FTY720 efficacy and its altered expression in MS brains, molecularly linking MS and B12 deficiency that can be accessed by sphingolipid/fingolimod metabolic pathways.