Multiple sclerosis is the most frequent chronic inflammatory disease of the CNS. The entry and survival of pathogenic T cells in the CNS are crucial for the initiation and persistence of autoimmune neuroinflammation. In this respect, contradictory evidence exists on the role of the most potent type of antigen-presenting cells, dendritic cells. Applying intravital two-photon microscopy, we demonstrate the gatekeeper function of CNS professional antigen-presenting CD11c(+) cells, which preferentially interact with Th17 cells. IL-17 expression correlates with expression of GM-CSF by T cells and with accumulation of CNS CD11c(+) cells. These CD11c(+) cells are organized in perivascular clusters, targeted by T cells, and strongly express the inflammatory chemokines Ccl5, Cxcl9, and Cxcl10. Our findings demonstrate a fundamental role of CNS CD11c(+) cells in the attraction of pathogenic T cells into and their survival within the CNS. Depletion of CD11c(+) cells markedly reduced disease severity due to impaired enrichment of pathogenic T cells within the CNS.