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Goliath induces inflammation in obese mice by linking fatty acid ?-oxidation to glycolysis

Hao, S;Zhang, S;Ye, J;Chen, L;Wang, Y;Pei, S;Zhu, Q;Xu, J;Tao, Y;Zhou, N;Yin, H;Duan, CW;Mao, C;Zheng, M;Xiao, Y;

Obesity is associated with metabolic disorders and chronic inflammation. However, the obesity-associated metabolic contribution to inflammatory induction remains elusive. Here, we show that, compared with lean mice, CD4+ T cells from obese mice exhibit elevated basal levels of fatty acid ?-oxidation (FAO), which promote T cell glycolysis and thus hyperactivation, leading to enhanced induction of inflammation. Mechanistically, the FAO rate-limiting enzyme carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a) stabilizes the mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin ligase Goliath, which mediates deubiquitination of calcineurin and thus enhances activation of NF-AT signaling, thereby promoting glycolysis and hyperactivation of CD4+ T cells in obesity. We also report the specific GOLIATH inhibitor DC-Gonib32, which blocks this FAO-glycolysis metabolic axis in CD4+ T cells of obese mice and reduces the induction of inflammation. Overall, these findings establish a role of a Goliath-bridged FAO-glycolysis axis in mediating CD4+ T cell hyperactivation and thus inflammation in obese mice.