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Human cytomegalovirus upregulates expression of the lectin galectin 9 via induction of beta interferon

McSharry, BP;Forbes, SK;Cao, JZ;Avdic, S;Machala, EA;Gottlieb, DJ;Abendroth, A;Slobedman, B;

Regulation of the lectin galectin 9 (Gal-9) was investigated for the first time during human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. Gal-9 transcription was significantly upregulated in transplant recipients with reactivated HCMV in vivo. In vitro, Gal-9 was potently upregulated by HCMV independently of viral gene expression, with interferon beta (IFN-) identified as the mediator of this effect. This study defines an immunoregulatory protein potently increased by HCMV infection and a novel mechanism to control Gal-9 through IFN- induction.