IL-11 induced differentiation and expansion of Th17 cells in patients with early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). In mice with relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (RREAE), IL-11 exacerbated disease, induced demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS), increased the percentage of IL-17A+CD4+ Th17 cells in the CNS in the early acute phase, and up-regulated serum IL-17A levels and the percentage of IL-17A+CD4+ Th17 cells in lymph nodes, and IFN-+CD4+ T cells in spinal cord in the RR phase. IL-11 antagonist suppressed RREAE disease activities, inhibited IL-17A+CD4+ cell infiltration and demyelination in the CNS, and decreased the percentage of IL-17A+CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and ICAM1+CD4+ T cells in brain and SC. Diffusion Tensor Imaging indicated that IL-11 antagonist inhibited demyelination in several brain regions. We conclude that by suppressing Th17 cell-mediated neuroinflammation and demyelination, IL-11 antagonist can be further studied as a potential selective and early therapy for RRMS. Copyright 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.