Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Allergen exposure at lung and gut mucosae can lead to aberrant T(H)2 immunity and allergic disease. The epithelium-associated cytokines thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), IL-25, and IL-33 are suggested to be important for the initiation of these responses.,We sought to investigate the contributions of TSLP, IL-25, and IL-33 in the development of allergic disease to the common allergens house dust mite (HDM) or peanut.,Neutralizing antibodies or mice deficient in TSLP, IL-25, or IL-33 signaling were exposed to HDM intranasally or peanut intragastrically, and immune inflammatory and physiologic responses were evaluated. In vitro assays were performed to examine specific dendritic cell (DC) functions.,We showed that experimental HDM-induced allergic asthma and food allergy and anaphylaxis to peanut were associated with TSLP production but developed independently of TSLP, likely because these allergens functionally mimicked TSLP inhibition of IL-12 production and induction of OX40 ligand (OX40L) on DCs. Blockade of OX40L significantly lessened allergic responses to HDM or peanut. Although IL-25 and IL-33 induced OX40L on DCs in vitro, only IL-33 signaling was necessary for intact allergic immunity, likely because of its superior ability to induce DC OX40L and expand innate lymphoid cells in vivo.,These data identify a nonredundant, IL-33-driven mechanism initiating T(H)2 responses to the clinically relevant allergens HDM and peanut. Our findings, along with those in infectious and transgenic/surrogate allergen systems, favor a paradigm whereby multiple molecular pathways can initiate T(H)2 immunity, which has implications for the conceptualization and manipulation of these responses in health and disease.