We have previously shown that adoptive transfer of in vitro CD3/CD28 activated autologous CD4(+) T cells results in increased CD4 counts and CD4/CD8 ratios in HIV+ subjects. In this report, analysis of variable beta (Vbeta) chain T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire showed that CD3/CD28 stimulation was able to increase polyclonality within skewed spectra types in vitro. In vivo, two of eight subjects showed increase in TCR diversity and importantly, in no subject did a highly skewed in vivo repertoire emerge. Measurement of proliferative response to alloantigen showed increases following infusions. Response to pharmacological stimulus and lectin via Interferon-gamma ELISpot assay showed increases in a subset of subjects following infusions. However, interferon-gamma response to HIV antigens and peptides declined concurrent with stable or diminishing latent infectious viral load in CD4(+) T cells. These data provide further evidence that adoptive transfer of activated autologous CD4(+) T cells can augment the immune system.