The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been proposed in several neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases and may contribute to neural apoptosis. The complex role of ER stress-mediated apoptosis introduces a novel angle on multiple sclerosis (MS) research. Nevertheless, the mechanisms through which ER stress intermediates apoptosis are not entirely understood. To this aim, we examined the expression of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), caspase-12, and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We found the upregulated expression of CHOP, caspase-12, and PDI in the brain of EAE mice in comparison to healthy mice. Furthermore, elevated levels of caspase-12/CHOP in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia were found in the hippocampus section of EAE mice. This study highlighted the presence of ER stress and increased activation of caspase-12 in the hippocampus of mice in response to EAE induction. Higher levels of caspase-12/CHOP in hippocampal oligodendrocytes as compared with microglia and astrocytes denote that oligodendrocytes are particularly sensitive to ER-mediated apoptosis. In conclusion, the regulation of ER stress pathway would be beneficial for the survival of oligodendrocyte. Copyright 2019. Published by Elsevier Inc.