Journal Of Neuroimmunology
Ingested immunoactive proteins, type I IFN, SIRS peptide 1-21, -MSH, ACTH, and SST inhibit clinical attacks and inflammation in acute EAE by decreasing Th1-like cytokines, increasing Th2-like cytokines or increasing T(reg) cell frequencies. We examined whether another protein, neuropeptide Y, would have similar anti-inflammatory effects in EAE after oral administration. B6 mice were immunized with MOG peptide 35-55 and gavaged with control saline or NPY during ongoing disease. Splenocytes from mock fed or NPY fed mice were adoptively transferred into active MOG peptide 35-55 immunized recipient mice during ongoing disease. Ingested (oral) NPY inhibited ongoing disease, and decreased inflammation. Adoptively transferred cells from NPY fed donors protected against actively induced disease and decreased inflammation. In actively fed mice, oral NPY decreased Th1-like cytokines and increased Th2-like IL-13 cytokines in both the spleen and the CNS. In recipients of donor cells from NPY fed mice there was a reduction of Th1 and Th17 and induction of Th2-like IL-13 cytokines in both the spleen and CNS. Oral NPY decreased clinical score and decreased inflammatory foci in both actively fed and recipients of actively fed mice. There was no significant increase in T(reg) cell frequencies in actively fed or recipients of NPY fed donor cells. Ingested (orally administered) NPY can inhibit clinical disease, inhibit CNS inflammation by decreasing Th17 and Th1-like cytokines and increasing Th2-like cytokines in the CNS.