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Inhibition of pathologic immunoglobulin E in food allergy by EBF-2 and active compound berberine associated with immunometabolism regulation

Yang, N;Maskey, AR;Srivastava, K;Kim, M;Wang, Z;Musa, I;Shi, Y;Gong, Y;Fidan, O;Wang, J;Dunkin, D;Chung, D;Zhan, J;Miao, M;Sampson, HA;Li, XM;

Food allergy is a significant public health problem with limited treatment options. As Food Allergy Herbal Formula 2 (FAHF-2) showed potential as a food allergy treatment, we further developed a purified version named EBF-2 and identified active compounds. We investigated the mechanisms of EBF-2 on IgE-mediated peanut (PN) allergy and its active compound, berberine, on IgE production.IgE plasma cell line U266 cells were cultured with EBF-2 and FAHF-2, and their effects on IgE production were compared. EBF-2 was evaluated in a murine PN allergy model for its effect on PN-specific IgE production, number of IgE+ plasma cells, and PN anaphylaxis. Effects of berberine on IgE production, the expression of transcription factors, and mitochondrial glucose metabolism in U266 cells were evaluated.EBF-2 dose-dependently suppressed IgE production and was over 16 times more potent than FAHF-2 in IgE suppression in U266 cells. EBF-2 significantly suppressed PN-specific IgE production (70%, p<0.001) and the number of IgE-producing plasma cells in PN allergic mice, accompanied by 100% inhibition of PN-induced anaphylaxis and plasma histamine release (p<0.001) without affecting IgG1 or IgG2a production. Berberine markedly suppressed IgE production, which was associated with suppression of XBP1, BLIMP1, and STAT6 transcription factors and a reduced rate of mitochondrial oxidation in an IgE-producing plasma cell line.EBF-2 and its active compound berberine are potent IgE suppressors, associated with cellular regulation of immunometabolism on IgE plasma cells, and may be a potential therapy for IgE-mediated food allergy and other allergic disorders.