Dietary fibers are potent modulators of immune responses that can restrain inflammation in multiple disease contexts. However, dietary fibers encompass a biochemically diverse family of carbohydrates, and it remains unknown how individual fiber sources influence immunity. In a direct comparison of four different high-fiber diets, we demonstrate a potent ability of guar gum to delay disease and neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a T cell-mediated mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Guar gum-specific alterations to the microbiota are limited, and disease protection appears to be independent of fiber-induced increases in short-chain fatty acid levels or regulatory CD4+ T cells. Instead, CD4+ T cells of guar gum-supplemented mice are less encephalitogenic due to reduced activation, proliferation, Th1 differentiation, and altered migratory potential. These findings reveal specificity in the host response to fiber sources and define a pathway of fiber-induced immunomodulation that protects against pathologic neuroinflammation.