Citation

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Intranasal Resveratrol Nanoparticles Enhance Neuroprotection in a Model of Multiple Sclerosis

Shamsher, E;Khan, RS;Davis, BM;Dine, K;Luong, V;Cordeiro, MF;Shindler, KS;

Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol which has a very low bioavailability but whose antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Previously, we reported the oral administration of resveratrol nanoparticles (RNs) elicited a neuroprotective effect in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of MS, at significantly lower doses than unconjugated resveratrol (RSV) due to enhanced bioavailability. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the intranasal administration of a cell-derived secretome-based therapy at low concentrations leads to the selective neuroprotection of the optic nerve in EAE mice. The current study sought to assess the potential selective efficacy of lower concentrations of intranasal RNs for attenuating optic nerve damage in EAE mice.EAE mice received either a daily intranasal vehicle, RNs or unconjugated resveratrol (RSV) for a period of thirty days beginning on the day of EAE induction. Mice were assessed daily for limb paralysis and weekly for visual function using the optokinetic response (OKR) by observers masked to treatment regimes. After sacrifice at day 30, spinal cords and optic nerves were stained to assess inflammation and demyelination, and retinas were immunostained to quantify retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival.Intranasal RNs significantly increased RGC survival at half the dose previously shown to be required when given orally, reducing the risk of systemic side effects associated with prolonged use. Both intranasal RSV and RN therapies enhanced RGC survival trends, however, only the effects of intranasal RNs were significant. RGC loss was prevented even in the presence of inflammatory and demyelinating changes induced by EAE in optic nerves.The intranasal administration of RNs is able to reduce RGC loss independent of the inflammatory and demyelinating effects on the optic nerve and the spinal cord. The concentration of RNs needed to achieve neuroprotection is lower than previously demonstrated with oral administration, suggesting intranasal drug delivery combined with nanoparticle conjugation warrants further exploration as a potential neuroprotective strategy for the treatment of optic neuritis, alone as well as in combination with glucocorticoids.