European Journal Of Pharmacology
GPR82 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that has been implicated in lipid storage in mouse adipocytes. However, the intracellular signaling as well as the specific ligands of GPR82 remain unknown. GPR82 is closely related to GPR34, a GPCR for the bioactive lipid molecule lysophosphatidylserine. In this study, we screened a lipid library using GPR82-transfected cells to search for ligands that act on GPR82. By measuring cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels, we found that GPR82 is an apparently constitutively active GPCR that leads to Gi protein activation. In addition, edelfosine (1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), an artificial lysophospholipid with a cationic head group that exerts antitumor activity, inhibited the Gi protein activation by GPR82. Two endogenous lysophospholipids with cationic head groups, lysophosphatidylcholine (1-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) and lysophosphatidylethanolamine (1-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine), also exhibited GPR82 inhibitory activity, albeit weaker than edelfosine. Förster resonance energy transfer imaging analysis consistently demonstrated that Gi protein-coupled GPR82 has an apparent constitutive activity that is edelfosine-sensitive. Consistent data were obtained from GPR82-mediated binding analysis of guanosine-5′-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) to cell membranes. Furthermore, in GPR82-transfected cells, edelfosine inhibited insulin-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation, like compounds that function as inverse agonists at other GPCRs. Therefore, edelfosine is likely to act as an inverse agonist of GPR82. Finally, GPR82 expression inhibited adipocyte lipolysis, which was abrogated by edelfosine. Our findings suggested that the cationic lysophospholipids edelfosine, lysophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylethanolamine are novel inverse agonists for Gi-coupled GPR82, which is apparently constitutively active, and has the potential to exert lipolytic effects through GPR82.