Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are integral membrane-bound receptors that are central to innate and adaptive immune responses. They are known to activate a cascade of downstream signals to induce the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and type I interferons. Dysregulated activation of TLR signaling pathways can induce the activation of various transcription factors, such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). TLRs act via MyD88- and TRIF-mediated pathways to induce inflammatory responses. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of isobavachalcone (IBC), a natural chalcone component of Angelica keiskei, we examined its effects on signal transduction via TLR signaling pathways. IBC inhibited the activation of NF-κB and IRF3 induced by TLR agonists and their target genes. IBC also inhibited the activation of NF-κB and IRF3 induced by overexpression of downstream signaling components of TLR signaling pathways. These results suggest that IBC can regulate both MyD88- and TRIF-dependent signaling pathways of TLRs, resulting in a dramatic increase of new therapeutic options for various inflammatory diseases involving TLRs.