The single-dose live attenuated vaccine CVD 103-HgR protects against experimental Vibrio cholerae infection in cholera-nave adults for at least 6months after vaccination. While vaccine-induced vibriocidal seroconversion is associated with protection, vibriocidal titers decline rapidly from their peak 1-2weeks after vaccination. Although vaccine-induced memory B cells (MBCs) might mediate sustained protection in individuals without detectable circulating antibodies, it is unknown whether oral cholera vaccination induces a MBC response. In a study that enrolled North American adults, we measured lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and cholera toxin (CtxB)-specific MBC responses to PXVX0200 (derived from the CVD 103-HgR strain) and assessed stool volumes following experimental Vibrio cholerae infection. We then evaluated the association between vaccine-induced MBC responses and protection against cholera. There was a significant increase in % CT-specific IgG, % LPS-specific IgG, and % LPS-specific IgA MBCs which persisted 180days after vaccination as well as a significant association between vaccine-induced increase in % LPS-specific IgA MBCs and lower post-challenge stool volume (r=-0.56, p<0.001). Oral cholera vaccination induces antigen-specific MBC responses, and the anamnestic LPS-specific responses may contribute to long-term protection and provide correlates of the duration of vaccine-induced protection. NCT01895855. Copyright 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.