Citation

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Low level bacterial endotoxin activates two distinct signaling pathways in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

Blomkalns AL, Stoll LL, Shaheen W, Romig-Martin SA, Dickson EW, Weintraub NL, Denning GM

Bacterial endotoxin, long recognized as a potent pro-inflammatory mediator in acute infectious processes, has more recently been identified as a risk factor for atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. When endotoxin enters the bloodstream, one of the first cells activated is the circulating monocyte, which exhibits a wide range of pro-inflammatory responses.