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Maternal n-3 enriched diet reprograms neurovascular transcriptome and blunts inflammation in neonate

Chumak, T;Jullienne, A;Joakim Ek, C;Ardalan, M;Svedin, P;Quan, R;Salehi, A;Salari, S;Obenaus, A;Vexler, Z;Mallard, C;

Infection during perinatal period can adversely affect brain development, predispose infants to ischemic stroke and have lifelong consequences. We previously demonstrated that diet enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) transforms brain lipid composition and protects from neonatal stroke. Vasculature is a critical interface between blood and brain providing a barrier to systemic infection. Here we examined whether maternal PUFA-enriched diets exert reprograming of endothelial cell signalling in 9-day old mice after endotoxin (LPS)-induced infection. Transcriptome analysis was performed on brain microvessels from pups born to dams maintained on 3 diets: standard, n-3 or n-6 enriched. N-3 diet enabled higher immune reactivity in brain vasculature, while preventing imbalance of cell cycle regulation and extracellular matrix cascades that accompanied inflammatory response in standard diet. LPS response in blood and brain was blunted in n-3 offspring. Cerebral angioarchitecture analysis revealed modified vessel complexity after LPS. Thus, n-3-enriched maternal diet partially prevents imbalance in homeostatic processes and alters inflammation rather than affects brain vascularization during early life. Importantly, maternal diet may presage offspring neurovascular outcomes later in life.