Journal of Experimental Medicine
Amyloid fibrils composed of peptides as short as six amino acids are effective therapeutics for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Immunosuppression arises from at least two pathways: (1) expression of type 1 IFN by pDCs, which were induced by neutrophil extracellular traps arising from the endocytosis of the fibrils; and (2) the reduced expression of IFN-, TNF, and IL-6. The two independent pathways stimulated by the fibrils can act in concert to be immunosuppressive in Th1 indications, or in opposition, resulting in inflammation when Th17 T lymphocytes are predominant. The generation of type 1 IFN can be minimized by using polar, nonionizable, amyloidogenic peptides, which are effective in both Th1 and Th17 polarized EAE.