Food allergy is a hypersensitive immune reaction to food proteins. We have previously demonstrated the presence of IL-10-producing CD5(+) B cells and suggested their potential role in regulating cow’s milk casein allergy in humans and IgE-mediated anaphylaxis in mice. In this study, we determined whether IL-10-producing CD5(+) regulatory B cells control casein-induced food allergic responses in mice and, if so, the underlying mechanisms. The induction of oral tolerance (OT) by casein suppressed casein-induced allergic responses including the decrease of body temperature, symptom score, diarrhea, recruitment of mast cells and eosinophils into jejunum, and other biological parameters in mice. Notably, the population of IL-10-producing CD5(+) B cells was increased in mesenteric lymph node (MLN), but not in spleen or peritoneal cavity (PeC) in OT mice. The adoptive transfer of CD5(+) B cells from MLN, but not those from spleen and PeC, suppressed the casein-induced allergic responses in an allergen-specific and IL-10-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of IL-10-producing CD5(+) B cells on casein-induced allergic response was dependent on Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. Taken together, mesenteric IL-10-producing regulatory B cells control food allergy via Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells and could potentially act as a therapeutic regulator for food allergy.