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Bi, Q;Wang, C;Cheng, G;Chen, N;Wei, B;Liu, X;Li, L;Lu, C;He, J;Weng, Y;Yin, C;Lin, Y;Wan, S;Zhao, L;Xu, J;Wang, Y;Gu, Y;Shen, XZ;Shi, P;
Although many studies have addressed the regulatory circuits affecting neuronal activities, local non-synaptic mechanisms that determine neuronal excitability remain unclear. Here, we found that microglia prevented overactivation of pre-sympathetic neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) at steady state. Microglia constitutively released platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) B, which signaled via PDGFR? on neuronal cells and promoted their expression of Kv4.3, a key subunit that conducts potassium currents. Ablation of microglia, conditional deletion of microglial PDGFB, or suppression of neuronal PDGFR? expression in the PVN elevated the excitability of pre-sympathetic neurons and sympathetic outflow, resulting in a profound autonomic dysfunction. Disruption of the PDGFBMG-Kv4.3Neuron pathway predisposed mice to develop hypertension, whereas central supplementation of exogenous PDGFB suppressed pressor response when mice were under hypertensive insult. Our results point to a non-immune action of resident microglia in maintaining the balance of sympathetic outflow, which is important in preventing cardiovascular diseases.