Although many studies have addressed the regulatory circuits affecting neuronal activities, local non-synaptic mechanisms that determine neuronal excitability remain unclear. Here, we found that microglia prevented overactivation of pre-sympathetic neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) at steady state. Microglia constitutively released platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) B, which signaled via PDGFR? on neuronal cells and promoted their expression of Kv4.3, a key subunit that conducts potassium currents. Ablation of microglia, conditional deletion of microglial PDGFB, or suppression of neuronal PDGFR? expression in the PVN elevated the excitability of pre-sympathetic neurons and sympathetic outflow, resulting in a profound autonomic dysfunction. Disruption of the PDGFBMG-Kv4.3Neuron pathway predisposed mice to develop hypertension, whereas central supplementation of exogenous PDGFB suppressed pressor response when mice were under hypertensive insult. Our results point to a non-immune action of resident microglia in maintaining the balance of sympathetic outflow, which is important in preventing cardiovascular diseases.