Citation

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Modulation of Hyperosmotic and Immune-Induced Disruption of the Blood-Brain Barrier by the Nitric Oxide System

Hasarmeh, M;Itzik, A;Weidenfeld, J;Ovadia, H;

The role of nitric oxide (NO) in modulating the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is not entirely clear. We examined the effect of different NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors and NO donors on the permeability of the BBB in animals with normally functioning brain blood vessels, following disruption by hyperosmotic mannitol and during immune inflammation.,We administered L-NAME, aminoguanidine, S-methyl-thiocitrulline (SMT) and 7-indazole (NOS inhibitors) and NOR-4 (an NO donor) into the cerebral ventricle of rats. Disruption of the BBB was induced by intracarotid injection of mannitol (25%). Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced by brain homogenate. The extent of disruption was evaluated by Evans blue (2%) dye extravasation.,L-NAME (a nonspecific NOS inhibitor) and SMT (a neuronal and endothelial NOS inhibitor) increased mannitol-induced disruption of BBB. This effect was inhibited by NO donors. In animals with a normally functioning BBB, none of these inhibitors or NO donors caused a change in the permeability. 7-indazole (a specific neuronal NOS inhibitor) and aminoguanidine (an inducible NOS inhibitor) had no facilitatory effect on BBB permeability, either alone or in combination with hyperosmotic mannitol. Administration of L-NAME and SMT to rats with EAE significantly aggravated the clinical outcome. In contrast, the administration of NOR-4 diminished clinical signs of EAE.,The NOS system does not play a role in BBB permeability in nave animals. Only endothelial NOS takes part in the facilitation of BBB compromised by mannitol and EAE. Extrinsic NO decreases this facilitatory effect.