The Journal Of Biological Chemistry
The Gram-positive bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes produces a C3 family ADP-ribosyltransferase designated SpyA (S. pyogenes ADP-ribosyltransferase). Our laboratory has identified a number of eukaryotic protein targets for SpyA, prominent among which are the cytoskeletal proteins actin and vimentin. Because vimentin is an unusual target for modification by bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferases, we quantitatively compared the activity of SpyA on vimentin and actin. Vimentin was the preferred substrate for SpyA (k(cat), 58.5 3.4 min(-1)) relative to actin (k(cat), 10.1 0.6 min(-1)), and vimentin was modified at a rate 9.48 1.95-fold greater than actin. We employed tandem mass spectrometry analysis to identify sites of ADP-ribosylation on vimentin. The primary sites of modification were Arg-44 and -49 in the head domain, with several additional secondary sites identified. Because the primary sites are located in a domain of vimentin known to be important for the regulation of polymerization by phosphorylation, we investigated the effects of SpyA activity on vimentin polymerization, utilizing an in vitro NaCl-induced filamentation assay. SpyA inhibited vimentin filamentation, whereas a catalytic site mutant of SpyA had no effect. Additionally, we demonstrated that expression of SpyA in HeLa cells resulted in collapse of the vimentin cytoskeleton, whereas expression in RAW 264.7 cells impeded vimentin reorganization upon stimulation of this macrophage-like cell line with LPS. We conclude that SpyA modification of vimentin occurs in an important regulatory region of the head domain and has significant functional effects on vimentin assembly.