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Nanoparticles Enhance Solubility and Neuroprotective Effects of Resveratrol in Demyelinating Disease

Shamsher, E;Khan, RS;Davis, BM;Dine, K;Luong, V;Somavarapu, S;Cordeiro, MF;Shindler, KS;

Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol which may be useful for treating neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). To date, current immunomodulatory treatments for MS aim to reduce inflammation with limited effects on the neurodegenerative component of this disease. The purpose of the current study is to develop a novel nanoparticle formulation of resveratrol to increase its solubility, and to assess its ability to prevent optic nerve and spinal cord degeneration in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of MS. Resveratrol nanoparticles (RNs) were made using a thin rehydration technique. EAE mice received a daily oral administration of vehicle, RNs or unconjugated resveratrol for one month. They were assessed daily for clinical signs of paralysis and weekly for their visual acuity with optokinetic responses (OKR). After one month, their spinal cords and optic nerves were stained for inflammation and demyelination and retinal ganglion cells immunostained for Brn3a. RNs were stable for three months. The administration of RNs did not have any effect on clinical manifestation of EAE and did not preserve OKR scores but reduced the intensity of the disease. It did not reduce inflammation and demyelination in the spinal cord and the optic nerve. However, RNs were able to decrease RGC loss compared to the vehicle. Results demonstrate that resveratrol is neuroprotective by reducing RGC loss. Interestingly, neuroprotective effects and decreased disease severity occurred without reduction of inflammation or demyelination, suggesting this therapy may fill an unmet need to limit the neurodegenerative component of MS.