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Nobiletin attenuates inflammation via modulating proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokine expressions in an autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse model

Yarim, GF;Yarim, M;Sozmen, M;Gokceoglu, A;Ertekin, A;Kabak, YB;Karaca, E;

The aim of this study is to investigate the potential preventive and therapeutic effects of nobiletin by evaluating the expression of cytokines associated with inflammatory reactions in an autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse model. A total of 60 male C57BL/6 mice aged between 8 and 10 weeks were used. Mice were divided into six groups (n = 10 mice per group): control, EAE, low-prophylaxis, high-prophylaxis, low-treatment and high-treatment. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and pertussis toxin. Nobiletin was administered in low (25 mg/kg) and high (50 mg/kg) doses, intraperitoneally. The prophylactic and therapeutic effects of nobiletin on brain tissue and spinal cord were evaluated by expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon gamma (IFNγ), IL-6, IL-10 and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) using immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Prophylactic and therapeutic use of nobiletin inhibited EAE-induced increase of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 activities to alleviate inflammatory response in brain and spinal cord. Moreover, nobiletin supplement dramatically increased the IL-10, TGF-β and IFNγ expressions in prophylaxis and treatment groups compared with the EAE group in the brain and spinal cord. The results obtained from this study show that prophylactic and therapeutic nobiletin modulates expressions of proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines in brain and spinal cord dose-dependent manner in EAE model. These data demonstrates that nobiletin has a potential to attenuate inflammation in EAE mouse model. These experimental findings need to be supported by clinical studies.