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Ontogeny and function of the circadian clock in intestinal organoids

Rosselot, A;Park, M;Matsu-Ura, T;Wu, G;Flores, D;Subramanian, K;Lee, S;Sundaram, N;Broda, T;McCauley, H;Hawkins, J;Chetal, K;Salomonis, N;Shroyer, N;Helmrath, M;Wells, J;Hogenesch, J;Moore, S;Hong, C;

Circadian rhythms regulate diverse aspects of gastrointestinal physiology ranging from the composition of microbiota to motility. However, development of the intestinal circadian clock and detailed molecular mechanisms regulating circadian physiology of the intestine remain largely unknown. The lack of appropriate human model systems that enable organ- and/or diseasespecific interrogation of clock functions is a major obstacle hindering advancements of translational applications using chronotherapy. In this report, we show that both pluripotent stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids engrafted into mice and patient-derived human intestinal enteroids (HIEs) possess robust circadian rhythms, and demonstrate circadian phase-dependent necrotic cell death responses to Clostridium difficile toxin B (TcdB). Intriguingly, mouse and human enteroids demonstrate anti-phasic necrotic cell death responses. RNA-Seq data show ~4% of genes are rhythmically expressed in HIEs. Remarkably, we observe anti-phasic gene expression of Rac1, a small GTPase directly inactivated by TcdB, between mouse and human enteroids. Importantly, the observed circadian time-dependent necrotic cell death response is abolished in both mouse enteroids and human intestinal organoids (HIOs) lacking robust circadian rhythms. Our findings uncover robust functions of circadian rhythms regulating critical clock-controlled genes (CCGs) in human enteroids governing organism-specific, circadian phasedependent necrotic cell death responses. Our data highlight unique differences between mouse and human enteroids, and lay a foundation for human organ- and disease-specific investigation of clock functions using human organoids for translational applications.