Oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) are being increasingly employed, but current killed formulations generally require multiple doses and lack efficacy in young children. We recently developed a new live-attenuated OCV candidate (HaitiV) derived from a Vibrio cholerae strain isolated during the 2010 Haiti cholera epidemic. HaitiV exhibited an unexpected probiotic-like activity in infant rabbits, preventing intestinal colonization and disease by wild-type V. cholerae before the onset of adaptive immunity. Here, we orally immunized adult germ-free female mice to test the immunogenicity of HaitiV. HaitiV safely and stably colonized vaccinated mice and induced known adaptive immune correlates of cholera protection within 14 days of administration. Pups born to immunized mice were protected against lethal challenges of both homologous and heterologous V. cholerae strains. Cross-fostering experiments revealed that protection was not dependent on vaccine colonization in or transmission to the pups. These findings demonstrate the protective immunogenicity of HaitiV and support its development as a new tool for limiting cholera.