Brown adipose tissue (BAT) functions as a thermogenic organ and is negatively associated with cardiometabolic diseases. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modulation regulates the fate of stem cells. Here, we show that the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)–E-prostanoid receptor 3 (EP3) axis was activated during mouse interscapular BAT development. Disruption of EP3 impaired the browning process during adipocyte differentiation from pre-adipocytes. Brown adipocyte-specific depletion of EP3 compromised interscapular BAT formation and aggravated high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in vivo. Mechanistically, activation of EP3 stabilized the Zfp410 mRNA via WTAP-mediated m6A modification, while knockdown of Zfp410 abolished the EP3-induced enhancement of brown adipogenesis. EP3 prevented ubiquitin-mediated degradation of WTAP by eliminating PKA-mediated ERK1/2 inhibition during brown adipocyte differentiation. Ablation of WTAP in brown adipocytes abrogated the protective effect of EP3 overexpression in high-fat diet-fed mice. Inhibition of EP3 also retarded human embryonic stem cell differentiation into mature brown adipocytes by reducing the WTAP levels. Thus, a conserved PGE2-EP3 axis promotes BAT development by stabilizing WTAP/Zfp410 signaling in a PKA/ERK1/2-dependent manner.