Beyond their canonical roles in hemostasis and thrombosis, platelets function in the innate immune response by interacting directly with pathogens and by regulating the recruitment and activation of immune effector cells. Thrombocytopenia often coincides with neutropenia in patients with hematologic malignancies and in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients, patient groups at high risk for invasive fungal infections. While neutropenia is well established as a major clinical risk factor for invasive fungal infections, the role of platelets in host defense against human fungal pathogens remains understudied. Here, we examined the role of platelets in murine Aspergillus fumigatus infection using two complementary approaches to induce thrombocytopenia without concurrent neutropenia. Thrombocytopenic mice were highly susceptible to A. fumigatus challenge and rapidly succumbed to infection. Although platelets regulated early conidial phagocytosis by neutrophils in a spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk)-dependent manner, platelet-regulated conidial phagocytosis was dispensable for host survival. Instead, our data indicated that platelets primarily function to maintain hemostasis and lung integrity in response to exposed fungal antigens, since thrombocytopenic mice exhibited severe hemorrhage into the airways in response to fungal challenge in the absence of overt angioinvasion. Challenge with swollen, heat-killed, conidia was lethal in thrombocytopenic hosts and could be reversed by platelet transfusion, consistent with the model that fungus-induced inflammation in platelet-depleted mice was sufficient to induce lethal hemorrhage. These data provide new insights into the role of platelets in the anti-Aspergillus host response and expand their role to host defense against filamentous molds.