The Journal of Immunology
During infection with the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni, Ab regulates hepatic inflammation, and local production of Ig in the liver appears to play a role in this process. Exploring the development of the B cell response during infection, we found that parasite-specific IgG1-secreting plasma cells appeared first in the hepatic and mesenteric lymph nodes (LNs) and then at later times in the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. The LN B cell population peaked between weeks 10 and 12 of infection, and then contracted at a time that coincided with the expansion of the hepatic IgG1(+) B cell compartment, suggesting that B cells migrate from LNs to liver. CXCL9 and -16 expression in the liver increased during the time frame of B cell recruitment. Expression of the CXCL16 receptor CXCR6 was increased on B cells within the hepatic LNs, but not the mesenteric LNs. CXCR3, the receptor for CXCL9, was broadly expressed on IgG1(+) B cells in LNs and liver during infection. Increased hepatic expression of CXCL9 and -16 failed to occur if the IL-10R was blocked in vivo, an intervention associated with decreased liver B cell infiltration and the development of severe disease. Hepatic LN IgG1(+) cells migrated toward CXCL9 and -16 in vitro and to the liver in a pertussis toxin-sensitive fashion. Our data suggest that the coordinated expression of CXCL9 and -16 in the liver and of CXCR6 and CXCR3 on responding B cells within the hepatic LNs underpins establishment of the hepatic B cell infiltrate during chronic schistosomiasis.