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RNA Binding Proteins that Mediate LPS-induced Alternative Splicing of the MyD88 Innate Immune Regulator

Lee, FFY;Harris, C;Alper, S;

Inflammation driven by Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways is required to combat infection. However, inflammation can damage host tissues; thus it is essential that TLR signaling ultimately is terminated to prevent chronic inflammatory disorders. One mechanism that terminates persistent TLR signaling is alternative splicing of the MyD88 signaling adaptor, which functions in multiple TLR signaling pathways. While the canonical long isoform of MyD88 (MyD88-L) mediates TLR signaling and promotes inflammation, an alternatively-spliced shorter isoform of MyD88 (MyD88-S) produces a dominant negative inhibitor of TLR signaling. MyD88-S production is induced by inflammatory agonists including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and thus MyD88-S induction is thought to act as a negative feedback loop that prevents chronic inflammation. Despite the potential role that MyD88-S production plays in inflammatory disorders, the mechanisms controlling MyD88 alternative splicing remain unclear. Here, we identify two RNA binding proteins, SRSF1 and HNRNPU, that regulate LPS-induced alternative splicing of MyD88.