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The Journal Of Neuroscience : The Official Journal Of The Society For Neuroscience
Claypool, SM;Reiner, DJ;Behdin, S;Orihuel, J;Batista, A;Caldwell, KE;Chow, JJ;Bossert, JM;Rubio, FJ;Hope, BT;Shaham, Y;
We previously demonstrated a role of piriform cortex (Pir) in relapse to fentanyl seeking after food choice-induced voluntary abstinence. Here, we used this model to further study the role of Pir and its afferent projections in fentanyl relapse. We trained male and female rats to self-administer palatable food pellets for 6 d (6 h/day) and fentanyl (2.5 µg/kg/infusion, i.v.) for 12 d (6 h/day). We assessed relapse to fentanyl seeking after 12 voluntary abstinence sessions, achieved through a discrete choice procedure between fentanyl and palatable food (20 trials/session). We determined projection-specific activation of Pir afferents during fentanyl relapse with Fos plus the retrograde tracer cholera toxin B (injected into Pir). Fentanyl relapse was associated with increased Fos expression in anterior insular cortex (AI) and prelimbic cortex (PL) neurons projecting to Pir. We next used an anatomical disconnection procedure to determine the causal role of these two projections (AI→Pir and PL→Pir) in fentanyl relapse. Contralateral but not ipsilateral disconnection of AI→Pir projections decreased fentanyl relapse but not reacquisition of fentanyl self-administration. In contrast, contralateral but not ipsilateral disconnection of PL→Pir projections modestly decreased reacquisition but not relapse. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting and quantitative PCR data showed molecular changes within Pir Fos-expressing neurons associated with fentanyl relapse. Finally, we found minimal or no sex differences in fentanyl self-administration, fentanyl versus food choice, and fentanyl relapse. Our results indicate that AI→Pir and PL→Pir projections play dissociable roles in nonreinforced relapse to fentanyl seeking versus reacquisition of fentanyl self-administration after food choice-induced voluntary abstinence.